How to detect defective stones

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Stones have applications in different fields. They have many applications in medicine, industry, decoration, construction, etc.

Many of the rocks are similar to each other regarding their appearance, so only people who have the knowledge and are experts in this field can distinguish the types, genesis, quality, and degree of originality of the rocks.

If you want to buy or sell the stones while you are one of those people who know a few types of rocks or have little information about this industry, then we suggest you read this article.

Buying the stone

To buy the appropriate stone, first, you need to know for what purposes you want the stone. The stones have different applicationsand need to have special qualities according to their usage.

Rock is a natural material, which its production takes place in nature. Human explores the rocks, collect and process them.

To use the stones for desired purposes, they need to go through different stages, from mining to grinding and polishing. Different rock types, from different mines, have different extraction methods. The processing stages of the rocks have a significant role in the quality and price.

If you are planning to buy building stones, following we describe the necessary points you need to know in order to makethe right purchase andidentify the defective stone.

While purchasing, you should pay attention to the fact that, for example, buying a facade stone is different from buying a floor stone or wall stone.

The building stone types

The first thing you need to know to distinguish the high-quality stone from the low-quality one is that the high-quality stone must be free of cracks, grooves, fractures, loose sheets, decay, and pores.

Some experts introduced a simple way to distinguish a high-quality stone, which is applicable for everyone. If you hit a stone with a metal object and it makes a sound like glass, this stone would be free of cracks, decay, and so on.

The quality of water absorption needs to be as low as possible in the building stones, which is a prominent feature for the stones, which are used in the places such as the kitchen and bathroom. Itis acritical quality for the stones with bright colors too.

Stone cracks

The higher the resistance of the stone against weather and climate change, the better. It is a fundamental quality for the stones using in the exterior building facades. The stones with low resistance against cold, heat, humidity, and sunlight are not a correct choice for the exterior building facades, since they will damage in short terms and need to be replaced;in such cases, time and money are wasted.

Stone cracks in the exterior building facades

Resistance against corrosive and chemical materials is the next quality of the building stones. If you need to apply a stone in the bathroom or the floor in busy places, for instance, then the stone should have high resistance against corrosive and chemical materials; otherwise, the stone’s color would be pale and its life span reduced.

Different stones applications in construction

Following, webriefly pointed out a few common uses of constructing stones and their application.

  • Granite: this rock is one of the hard and durable ones that have high impact resistance and low water absorption. This stone is suitable for industrial environments. It is commonly used in building facades, floors, pavements, pedestrians, etc.
  • Sandstones: it is a sedimentary rock with a possible soft or hard texture. These rocks are very resistant to frost.They are commonly used in building facades.
  • Marmarite: this rock is very resistant to weathering and humidity. It is commonly used for interior design and decoration.
  • Carcass stone (badbar): this is one of the most stable and hard rocks. The main applications of this rock are in tunneling, bridge construction, paving, load-bearing and non-load-bearing walls, and mountain construction.
  • Travertine: in the warm climate it can be used as the building facades. This rock is commonly used for exterior and interior design.

Each of these stones is used in different spaces as mentioned.

Following this, we will refer to the appropriate stones for each space.

Appropriate stones for exterior and interior spaces

The stones used in exterior and interior facades must have important properties.

The stone used in outdoor spaces and environments must be highly resistant to cold, heat, humidity, sunlight, UV rays, and to climate change and weather conditions.

For interior stones, beauty and appearance are usually desired. Resistance in interior facades is less important.

Suitable stones for stairs and staircases

Granite, due to its high stability, is a good choice for stairs and staircases. But sometimes, due to the high price of granite, 2nd-grade marble is used, which is a big mistake since it does not have the desired stability for this place.

Suitable stone for residential and commercial spaces

Stones are one of the right materials for the floor in residential spaces. They have high stability and durability besides a glamorous appearance. Also, they prevent from losing energy regarding their isolation. Applying stone to the floor facilitates its maintenance since the stone is resistant to sharp objects.

Marble is the best choice on the floor.

Marble is also a good option for commercial and office spaces, but due to more traffic, higher-quality types of it must be installed.

The issue here is the use of alternative materials on the floor of buildings. Concerning the high price of stones, architects prefer to use cheaper materials like ceramics, tiles, parquet, etc., instead of stone.

Suitable stone for the toilet and bathroom

The stone applying for the bathroom and toilet must be resistant to abrasion and chemical agents like acidic detergents. The stone using in such places needs to be resistant to humidity too.

For example, marble is not the right choice for the toilet and bathroom.

Applying the stone for the toilet and bathroom

Properties of the original stone

To detect the original stone you do not have to be an expert. There are some approaches and practices that help you distinguish the original stone from the fake and the high-quality stone from the low-quality. Following, we pointed out these practical measures. To distinguish the precious and semi-precious minerals consider the following criteria.

  • Color

The type of minerals in the rock compositions caused the color of the rocks. The color of the rocks should be as it is in nature.

  • Transparency

Light can pass through the mineral. Therefore, the objects behind the stone can be transparent, semi-transparent, opaque, and semi-opaque.

  • Luster

The reflection of light on the surface of the mineral is directly related to the refractive index of the mineral. There are five kinds of luster in the rocks: vitreous luster, adamantine luster, resinous luster or silky luster, pearly luster, waxy luster, and metallic luster.

  • Inclusions and impurities

Inclusions are in the form of millet grains, needles, cloudy dust, and feathers, which can be homogeneous minerals or different minerals.

  • Multicolor

The multicolor phenomenon in minerals is due to the density in molecular inequality.

In the following, we will introduce practical and simple solutions for distinguishing natural stone and artificial stone.


Natural stones that form in nature take on their color and shape over the years due to various factors and climatic conditions, and the stones with exactly the same color do not found in nature. But artificial stones are exactly the same in terms of color, texture, and coating.

Price and weight

Processing of artificial stone is cheaper than natural one since all of the artificial stones have the same production procedure. They are also 20-30% lighter in weight.


One of the basic reasons for using stones in construction is their stability and durability. Natural stone durability is way more than artificial stone, and they require much less maintenance and care than artificial stones.

The durability ofthe natural rock is due to its low porosity.

Price of the building stone

The price of the building stone is affected by various factors. The application, type, processing method, and characteristics of the stone determine its price. In the following, we will refer to the factors affecting the price of the most widely used building stones.

Price of marmarite

The price of marmarite depends on various factors. Due to thewidespread use of this stone in construction and decoration, the sale of this stone in the stone market is very prosperous.

In the following, we will explain the factors affecting its price.

۱٫ Quality and analysis of stone

The physical and chemical analysis gives sufficient information about the stone. Also, stone analysis is necessary to determine its originality and quality.

۲٫ Color and design of the stone

Marmarite includes high variety among other building stones. The more special and unique the color and design for the stone is, the higher the price.

۳٫ Dimension and thickness of the stone

The thickness of the stone varies according to the use. Marmarite is often used as a paving stone, so it is required to have a high thickness and diameter. Because paving needs to have high resistance. The price of the stone increased as the thickness increased.

۴٫ Sort of stones

Marmaritehas a different type that must be sorted after the grinding and polishing stage. Recently, sorting devices have been introduced to the market that makes the sorting procedure easier.

۵٫ Types of stone processing

One of the most effective factorsthat determine the price is the type and method of processing. Influential factors in determining the price of marmarite arethe type of resin or epoxy, UV technology, the accuracy of cutting and sizing the stone, the mechanism and the degree of grinding and polishing, the mesh behind the stone and the type of packaging, shipping, and transportation.


The price of decorative marmarite

Iran is highly rich in terms of mines and sources of decorative and precious stones. Today, these stones are widely used in construction, exterior and interior decoration. As mentioned, marmarites are available in a variety of designs and colors. When producing decorative stones, the quality of their surface is significant because they should be as smooth and flat as possible so that they can be easily applied in the decoration of different parts of the building.

Decorative marmarite

Price of porcelain stone

Porcelain or crystal stone is in the group of marmarites that are popular in constructive and decoration. These stones are reasonably priced and have so many applications. The pricing in porcelain stones and marmarites has common factors, but there are also differences. We will refer to these factors in the following.

I. Analysis and quality of stone

The better the result of the stone analysis and the closer it is to the standard percentage, the higher the price and value of the stone.

II. Quality grade of porcelain stone or crystal

The grade of similar stones has a great impact on their price and sometimes it is cheaper than the 2nd grade stone.

III. Different color and design

There are not many color variations in porcelain stones. But in white porcelain stones, the lighter the color and the fewer veins, the more precious the stone becomes.

IV. Dimension and size of the stone

Porcelain stones are mostly applied in floors and exterior facades. The diameter of the stone used for the floor should be large, and this factor increases the price. The stones used for the building facades are required to be thick.

V. Sorting the stone

Porcelain or crystal stones have different types required to be sorted after sanding and polishing.

VI. Stone processing

Accuracy in cutting and corners of the stone, degree of sanding and polishing, and the type of packaging and transportation of porcelain stones have highly affected the quality and price.

Sirjan Porcelain stone

Selling the stones

It is not enough to have wealth to sell stone, specifically the building stones. The stone industry is one of the effective industries in the economy and financial future of Iran. There are many challenges in this way.

Using experts in this field will help you be the best in the products and services you offer.

Utilizing new and modern equipment, in addition to increasing the speed of production, also promotes the quality. This can have a great impact on the growth and development of this industry in addition to profitability.

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